Network Addresses Design

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A. Subnetting

Subnetting is a process of breaking a large network into small networks known as subnets. Subnetting happens when we extend the default boundary of the subnet mask. Basically we borrow host bits to create networks (i.e., subnets).

We have been assigned the network address 199.1.2.0. Based on the chart below, we know this is a Class C address. This is determined by observing the first octet of the IP address, which is 199. This octet falls in between 192 and 223.

Class Octet Decimal Range
A 1 – 126
B 128 – 191
C 192 – 223

Each class has a predefined default subnet mask that tells us the octets, which are already part of the network portion, as well as how many bits we have available to work with.

Class Subnet Mask Format
A 255.0.0.0 Network.Host.Host.Host
B 255.255.0.0 Network.Network.Host.Host
C 255.255.255.0 Network.Network.Network.Host

CIDR (Classless Inter Domain Routing)

CIDR is a slash notation of the subnet mask. CIDR tells us the number of on bits in a network address.

● Class A has default subnet mask 255.0.0.0. that means first octet of the subnet mask has all on bits. In slash notation it would be written as /8, means address has 8 bits on.

● Class B has default subnet mask 255.255.0.0. that means first two octets of the subnet mask have all on bits. In slash notation it would be written as /16, means address has 16 bits on.

● Class C has default subnet mask 255.255.255.0. that means first three octets of the subnet mask have all on bits. In slash notation it would be written as /24, means address has 24 bits on.

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